heavy snow season, waxy snow and winter plum are really beautiful, but cold weather always produces many unavoidable disasters, such as ice flood. It is well known that the ice flood of the Yellow River does great harm, but in fact, there are many other rivers in the world that will also produce ice flood. What are the rivers that will produce ice flood?
do you like it when you encounter heavy snow? Ice flood is a natural phenomenon in rivers in high latitude and cold areas. According to statistics, the probability of serious ice flood is 80% for rivers located north of 50 degrees north latitude with a drainage area of more than 100000 square kilometers. All rivers or river sections flowing from low latitude to high latitude and with freezing period may have ice flood in late winter and early spring.
at present, the main rivers with serious ice flood in the world are: Neva River, North devina River, Yenisei River and Lena River in Russia; Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, lower Elbe River in Europe; Montreal section of St. Lawrence River, Canada; Ning (Ningxia) Inner Mongolia (Inner Mongolia) and lower reaches of the Yellow River in China; China's Heilongjiang tributaries include Erguna River, Songhua River, Wusuli River, Ergis River, and several rivers in Siberia. Among them, the ice flood in the Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River in China caused the most serious disaster. The ice flood hazards ofand
mainly include three aspects: the flood hazards caused by ice jam usually occur in the freezing period, and mostly occur at the backwater end of the rapid slope change mitigation reservoir, which lasts for a long time and the water level rises gradually, which is very harmful to engineering facilities and human beings; The flood damage caused by ice dam usually occurs in the thawing period, and often occurs in the river section with large latitude difference from south to north. The formation speed is fast. After the formation of ice dam, the water level in the upstream of ice dam suddenly rises, the dike breaks, and the flood is rampant; Harm caused by ice pressure. Ice pressure is the force that ice directly acts on buildings, including the dynamic pressure generated by the impact of drift ice, the static pressure transmitted to buildings due to the action of wind and water shear on a large area of ice layer, and the static pressure generated by the expansion of the whole ice cover.and
mainly take a variety of effective measures against ice flood hazards, including prevention, storage, separation and drainage.and
are to organize a strong ice flood prevention team to defend the levee and resist the ice flood. Once a dangerous situation is found, rescue and protect it immediately to ensure the safety of the levee. Storage is to store the water from the upstream, so that the water from the upstream is small before thawing, and the water storage in the river channel is small, so as not to cause the water level to rise, swell the ice cap and cause disasters. Diversion is to use the flood diversion works and flood gates along the Yellow River to divert the ice water and reduce the pressure on the levee. Discharge means to blow up the ice sheet in the narrow river section where ice jam is easy to form, open up the chute, and make the ice from the upper reaches discharge smoothly. If the formation of an ice dam threatens the safety of the embankment, the ice dam shall be blown up in time with aircraft, artillery and explosives.
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